Peter Quince at the Clavier and Mixer-settler

"Peter Quince at the Clavier" is a poem from Wallace Stevens's first book of poetry, Harmonium. The poem was first published in 1915 in the "little magazine" Others: A Magazine of the New Verse (New York), edited by Alfred Kreymborg. Peter Quince at the Clavier I

 Just as my fingers on these keys  Make music, so the self-same sounds  On my spirit make a music, too.                Music is feeling, then, not sound;  And thus it is that what I feel,  Here in this room, desiring you,                Thinking of your blue-shadowed silk,  Is music. It is like the strain  Waked in the elders by Susanna:                Of a green evening, clear and warm,  She bathed in her still garden, while  The red-eyed elders, watching, felt                The basses of their beings throb  In witching chords, and their thin blood  Pulse pizzicati of Hosanna. II

 In the green water, clear and warm,  Susanna lay.  She searched  The touch of springs,  And found  Concealed imaginings.  She sighed,  For so much melody.                Upon the bank, she stood  In the cool  Of spent emotions.  She felt, among the leaves,  The dew  Of old devotions.                She walked upon the grass,  Still quavering.  The winds were like her maids,  On timid feet,  Fetching her woven scarves,  Yet wavering.                A breath upon her hand  Muted the night.  She turned--  A cymbal crashed,  And roaring horns. III

 Soon, with a noise like tambourines,  Came her attendant Byzantines.                They wondered why Susanna cried  Against the elders by her side;                And as they whispered, the refrain  Was like a willow swept by rain.                Anon, their lamps' uplifted flame  Revealed Susanna and her shame.                And then, the simpering Byzantines,  Fled, with a noise like tambourines. IV

 Beauty is momentary in the mind --  The fitful tracing of a portal;  But in the flesh it is immortal.                The body dies; the body's beauty lives,  So evenings die, in their green going,  A wave, interminably flowing.  So gardens die, their meek breath scenting  The cowl of Winter, done repenting.  So maidens die, to the auroral  Celebration of a maiden's choral.                Susanna's music touched the bawdy strings  Of those white elders; but, escaping,  Left only Death's ironic scrapings.                Now, in its immortality, it plays  On the clear viol of her memory,  And makes a constant sacrament of praise.

It is a "musical" allusion to the Biblical story of Susanna, a beautiful young wife, bathing, spied upon and desired by the elders. The Peter Quince of the title is the character of one of the "mechanicals" in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Stevens' poem titles are not necessarily a reliable indicator of the meaning of his poems, but Milton Bates suggests that it serves as ironic stage direction, the image of "Shakespear's rude mechanical pressing the delicate keyboard with his thick fingers" expressing the poet's self-deprecation and betraying Stevens's discomfort with the role of "serious poet" in those early years.

The poem is very sensual — Mark Halliday calls it Stevens' "most convincing expression of sexual desire". (Honorable mention might go to "Cy Est Pourtraicte, Madame Ste Ursule, et Les Unze Mille Vierges".) But "Peter Quince" has dimensions beyond Susanna's ablutions and the elders' desire.

For instance, the poem's Part IV contains a stunning inversion of Platonism and related theories about universals, such as the universal (property, feature) beauty. Instead of saying that beauty is an abstract unchanging Platonic Form existing perfectly in a world separate from the five senses, or an abstract unchanging concept in the mind, the poem says that, paradoxically, "Beauty is momentary in the mind": only transient beauty in the flesh is immortal. Kessler notes that "Unlike Plato or Kant, Stevens strives to unite idea and image."

Robert Buttel observes that each of the four sections has its "appropriate rhythms and tonalities", reading the poem as "part of the general movement to bring music and poetry closer together". He describes Stevens as "the musical imagist" and credits the musical architecture with organically unifying the poem. Some don't like it. For the New York Times poetry critic writing in 1931, it is a specimen of the "pure poetry" of the age that "cannot endure" because it is a "stunt" in the fantastic and the bizarre.

"Turning of music into words, and words into music, continues throughout the poem," according to Janet Mcann, "becoming metaphor as well as genuine verbal music." She instances the line "Pulse pizzicati of Hosanna" as mimicking the plucking of strings as well as suggesting the sexual itch. Because music is feeling, not sound, the analogy between music and poetry is tight. Poetry is feeling too.

Other commentators bring out Stevens' use of color images: "blue-shadowed silk", "green evening", "in the green water", even the "red-eyed elders". This is a reminder that he insisted also on the analogy between poetry and painting. In The Necessary Angel Stevens speaks of identity rather than analogy: " is the identity of poetry revealed as between poetry in words and poetry in paint."

Eugene Nassar explores a more abstract reading (and a more contentious one), according to which the poem is about the poet's "imaginative faculty", and Susanna represents the poem and the creative process of writing it. Laurence Perrine objects that Nassar's reading does violence to the poem and the story it leans on, naively ignoring Stevens" own "violence" in yoking a character from A Midsummer Night's Dream named in the title with a biblical narrative alluded to in The Merchant of Venice.

Contents 1 Adaptations 1.1 Notes 1.2 Media 1.3 References


With all its innate musicality, it is not surprising that the poem has been adapted for music twice. Dominic Argento set it as a "Sonatina for Mixed Chorus and Piano Concertante," and Gerald Berg set it for bass voice, clarinets, percussion and piano. Both works have been recorded. Notes ^ Thus the poem is in the public domain in the United States and similar jurisdictions, as it is not affected by the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, which extends copyright for works first published after 1922. ^ Bates, p. 117. ^ Robert Buttel, "On 'Peter Quince at the Clavier'" ^ Kessler, p. 58 ^ a b Buttel ^ The New York Times ^ Stevens, p. 159. Media

Mixer-settler and Peter Quince at the Clavier

Mixer-settler scheme

Mixer settlers are a class of mineral process equipment used in the solvent extraction process. A mixer settler consists of a first stage that mixes the phases together followed by a quiescent settling stage that allows the phases to separate by gravity.

Contents 1 Mixer 2 Settler 3 Use 4 Copper Example 5 See also 6 References


A mixing chamber where a mechanical agitator brings in intimate contact the feed solution and the solvent to carry out the transfer of solute(s). The mechanical agitator is equipped with a motor which drives a mixing and pumping turbine. This turbine draws the two phases from the settlers of the adjacent stages, mixes them, and transfers this emulsion to the associated settler. The mixer may consists of one or multiple stages of mixing tanks. Common laboratory mixers consist of a single mixing stage, whereas industrial scale copper mixers may consist of up to three mixer stages where each stage performs a combined pumping and mixing action. Use of multiple stages allows a longer reaction time and also minimizes the short circuiting of unreacted material through the mixers. Settler

A settling chamber where the two phases separate by static decantation. Coalescence plates facilitate the separation of the emulsion into two phases (heavy and light). The two phases then pass to continuous stages by overflowing the light phase and heavy phase weirs. The height of the heavy phase weir can be adjusted in order to position the heavy/light interphase in the settling chamber based on the density of each one of the phases. The settler is a calm pool downstream of the mixer where the liquids are allowed to separate by gravity. The liquids are then removed separately from the end of the mixer. Use 4 stage battery of mixer-settlers for counter-current extraction

Industrial mixer settlers are commonly used in the copper, nickel, uranium and cobalt hydrometallurgy industries, when solvent extraction processes are applied.

In the multiple countercurrent process, multiple mixer settlers are installed with mixing and settling chambers located at alternating ends for each stage (since the outlet of the settling sections feed the inlets of the adjacent stage’s mixing sections). Mixer-settlers are used when a process requires longer residence times and when the solutions are easily separated by gravity. They require a large facility footprint, but do not require much headspace, and need limited remote maintenance capability for occasional replacement of mixing motors. (Colven, 1956; Davidson, 1957)

The equipment units can be arrayed as: extraction (moving an ion of interest from an aqueous phase to an organic phase), washing (rinsing entrained aqueous contaminant out of an organic phase containing the ion of interest), and stripping (moving an ion of interest from an organic phase into an aqueous phase). Copper Example

In the case of oxide copper ore, a heap leaching pad will dissolve a dilute copper sulfate solution in a weak sulfuric acid solution. This pregnant leach solution (PLS) is pumped to an extraction mixer settler where it is mixed with the organic phase (a kerosene hosted extractant). The copper transfers to the organic phase, and the aqueous phase (now called raffinate) is pumped back to the heap to recover more copper.

In a high-chloride environment typical of Chilean copper mines, a wash stage will rinse any residual pregnant solution entrained in the organic with clean water.

The copper is then stripped from organic phase in the strip stage into a strong sulfuric acid solution suitable for electrowinning. This strong acid solution is called barren electrolyte when it enters the cell, and strong electrolyte when it is copper bearing after reacting in the cell. See also Solvent extraction Hydrometallurgy Mineral processing
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