John Ryle (writer) and Southern Russian dialects

John Rowland Ryle (born 2 May 1952) is a British writer and specialist in Eastern Africa. He is co-founder and Executive Director of the Rift Valley Institute, and Legrand Ramsey Professor of Anthropology at Bard College, NY.

Contents 1 Background 2 Life and Work 3 Selected Publications 3.1 Books 3.2 Technical Reports 3.3 Essays and Criticism 3.4 Translations 3.5 Film and Video 4 References


His father, John Creagh Ryle, a doctor and alpinist, was a general practitioner in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, where Ryle was born. His mother, Melody Ryle, née Jackson, was a stalwart of the local Family Planning Association and a noted amateur botanist and gardener. Ryle is a grandson of the pioneer of social medicine John Alfred Ryle, a nephew of the astronomer Sir Martin Ryle, a great-nephew of the philosopher Gilbert Ryle, and a great-great grandson of John Charles Ryle, evangelical Bishop of Liverpool in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Life and Work

Ryle was educated at Shrewsbury School and Oxford University, where he graduated in English Language and Literature. He pursued postgraduate studies in social anthropology, conducting fieldwork among the Agar Dinka of South Sudan. In 1975 he became an assistant editor at the Times Literary Supplement. During the printers' strike at Times Newspapers he founded, with Richard Boston, the acclaimed but short-lived periodical Quarto (1978–1981). From 1982 to 1986 he worked for the Sunday Times in London as Deputy Literary Editor and, subsequently, as a feature writer. He has written for the London Review of Books, the New York Review of Books, the New Yorker, the Los Angeles Times and various scholarly periodicals, and is a contributing editor of Granta.

Ryle also worked as a doorman at the Embassy Club in Bond Street, London, as a roustabout for the Royal American Shows and the Canadian Pacific Railway, as ghost-writer of Mick Jagger's unpublished autobiography, and as a travel writer.

In the late 1980s Ryle was a project officer at the Ford Foundation in Brazil and lived in an Afro-Brazllian community in Salvador da Bahia. In the 1990s he worked as a consultant to relief and development organisations in Sudan and the Horn of Africa including Save the Children Fund (UK). His weekly newspaper column, City of Words, appeared in The Guardian from 1995 to 1999. From 1996 to 1997 he was a research fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford. In the 1990s he became an activist in the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.

Since 2001 Ryle has been executive director of the Rift Valley Institute, a research and training organisation operating in Eastern Africa that he founded with Jok Madut Jok and Philip Winter. He was a member of the International Eminent Persons Group reporting on slavery and abduction in Sudan. In 2007 he was appointed Legrand Ramsey Professor of Anthropology at Bard College, a liberal arts college in New York state. He is a board member of the Media Development Loan Fund and of the scholarly journal African Affairs. Selected Publications Books The Sudan Handbook (2011) with Justin Willis, Suliman Baldo, Jok Madut Jok ISBN 978-1-8470-1030-8 Warriors of the White Nile: the Dinka (1982) with Sarah Errington ISBN 978-0-7054-0700-7 Technical Reports Local Peace Processes in Sudan: A Baseline Study (2006) with Mark Bradbury, Kwesi Sansculotte-Greenidge, Michael Medley Register of Persons Abducted from Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal, Sudan, 1983–2002 (2004/2005) with Jok Madut Jok, Fergus Boyle, Brown Kanyangi Budambula Report of an Investigation into Oil Development, Conflict and Displacement in Western Upper Nile, Sudan (2001) with Georgette Gagnon Essays and Criticism The Many Voices of Africa (2006) Granta At Play in the Bush of Ghosts: Tropical baroque, African reality and the writings of Ryszard Kapuściński (2001) The Times Literary Supplement The Hazards of Reporting Complex Emergencies in Africa (2000) Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems The Road to Abyei (1992) Worst journeys: The Picador book of travel ISBN 978-0-3303-2140-2 Miracles of the people : attitudes to Catholicism in an Afro-Brazilian religious centre in Salvador da Bahia (1988) Vernacular Christianity: essays in the social anthropology of religion presented to Godfrey Lienhardt Translations Virginia Rodrigues: Afro-Sambas, DeutscheGramafon (2003) Caetano Veloso: Noites do Norte (2001) Film and Video The Price of Survival (1994) Bright Star Productions (cameraman & co-director, with Bapiny Tim Chol) Witchcraft among the Azande (1982) Granada TV Disappearing World (Anthropologist)

Southern Russian dialects and John Ryle (writer)

Map of the Russian dialects of the primary formation (Southern Russian is red)

Southern Russian is one of the main groups of Russian dialects.

Contents 1 Territory 2 Phonology 3 Morphology 4 Relation to other dialects 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

Territory The territory of the primary formation (i.e. that consists of "Old" Russia of the 16th century before Eastern conquests by Ivan IV) is entirely 11 modern regions (oblasts): Belgorod, Bryansk, Kaluga, Kursk, Lipetsk, Oryol, Ryazan, Smolensk Tambov, Tula, Voronezh; and some southern parts of 3 regions: Moscow, Pskov and Tver The territory of the second formation (i.e. where Russians settled after the 16th century) consist of most the land of lower Don and Volga, the Northern Caucasus as well as Southern Ural, Siberia, and Far East. Phonology Unstressed /o/ undergoes different degrees of vowel reduction mainly to (strong akanye), less often to , , . Unstressed /o/, /e/, /a/ following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to (like in the Moscow dialect), being instead pronounced in such positions (e.g. несли is pronounced , not ) – this is called yakanye/яканье. Fricative /ɣ/ instead of the Standard and Northern /ɡ/. Soft /ɣʲ/ is usually . Semivowel /w~u̯/ in the place of the Standard and Northern /v/ and final /l/. /x~xv~xw/ where the Standard and Northern have /f/. Protetic /w~u̯/ before /u/ and stressed /o/: во́кна, ву́лица, Standard Russian окна, улица "windows, street". Protetic /j/ before /i/ and /e/: етот, ентот, Standard Russian этот "this". In Pskov (southern) and Ryazan sub-groups only one voiceless affricate exists. Merging of Standard Russian /t͡ʃ/ and /t͡s/ into one consonant whether /t͡s/ or /t͡ɕ/. Morphology Palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs (this is unpalatalized in the Standard and Northern dialects): он ходить, они ходять "he goes, they go" Occasional dropping of the 3rd person ending /tʲ/ at all: он ходи, они ходя "he goes, they go" Oblique case forms of personal pronouns мяне́, табе́, сабе́ instead of Standard Russian мне, тебе, себе "me, you, -self". Relation to other dialects

Some of these features such as akanye/yakanye, a debuccalized or lenited /ɡ/, a semivowel /w~u̯/ and palatalized final /tʲ/ in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian (Eastern Polesian), indicating a linguistic continuum. See also Central Russian dialects Northern Russian dialects
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