Ballot Measure 36 was a 2004 initiative in the U.S. state of Oregon. It amended the Oregon Constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman. The initiative passed with 1,028,546 votes in favor, and 787,556 votes against (57% to 43%) in the November 2, 2004 general election. It is one of a number of U.S. state constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions.On May 19, 2014, the measure was declared unconstitutional by a U.S. federal district court judge, who ruled that it violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.Contents 1 Results 2 Amendment to Constitution 3 Political context 4 Satirical arguments 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksResults Results by county: Yes Yes by a two-thirds majority No Amendment to ConstitutionMeasure 36 added the following text to Article 15 of the Oregon Constitution, as Section 5a:Policy regarding marriage. It is the policy of Oregon, and its political subdivisions, that only a marriage between one man and one woman shall be valid or legally recognized as a marriage. Political contextThe measure was placed on the ballot through an initiative petition brought by the Oregon Defense of Marriage Coalition, a group dedicated to "preserving marriage as a union only between one man and one woman." The group was formed in reaction to same-sex marriages performed in Multnomah County and Benton County after their respective county commissions interpreted the Oregon Constitution and Oregon law as authorizing the issuing of marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Supporters of the measure, in addition to opposing same-sex marriage on principle, were also angry by the controversial means by which the Multnomah County Commission had come to its decision: no public hearings were held before the commission voted to allow the marriages and one of the commissioners, Lonnie Roberts, was not informed of the move until after the other commissioners began issuing licenses. Roberts criticized the "clandestine way" that the decision was made and speculated that he had not been included in the discussion because the other commissioners knew that he wouldn't support their decision. Supporters also wanted to prevent the state courts from coming to the same conclusion as the county commissions—that the state constitution and law required the government to license same-sex marriage—before several standing civil rights lawsuits on the issue could be resolved.Basic Rights Oregon led the campaign against Measure 36. Opponents of the measure made several arguments. Many were supporters of same-sex marriage. In addition, some argued that regardless of voters' feelings on same-sex marriage, the state constitution was an inappropriate place to dictate marriage policy, which should have been statutory. Opponents also argued that the measure added discriminatory language to the state constitution, which, they predicted, would later be seen in the same negative light as earlier constitutional language against African Americans. They also feared that the measure could be used as a legal basis for denying benefits to same-sex couples which are automatically granted to heterosexual married couples.According to Daniel June in JD Journal, Judge Harry Pregerson effectively undermined the ban by declaring it unconstitutional, when he ruled in favor of Allison Clark that she should receive the same work benefits with her homosexual partner as heterosexual couples would receive. Satirical argumentsMarvin Dennis Moore, a Portland church organist, wrote satirical arguments on several Oregon ballot measures, including Measure 36. Moore's arguments, ostensibly in favor of the measure, were printed in the official voters' pamphlet. For example, reacting to some supporters' claims that the purpose of marriage is for procreation, he argues that "couples who fail to conceive within two years ought to have their marriage licenses revoked." Measure 36 supporters criticized the placement of Moore's arguments in the "Arguments in Favor" section of the pamphlet, but the Oregon Secretary of State's Office countered they had no choice under the law but to print his arguments as specified. See also Same-sex marriage in Oregon List of Oregon ballot measures Same-sex marriage in the United States Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States Same-sex marriage in the United States by state Same-sex marriage in the United States public opinion Same-sex marriage status in the United States by state List of benefits of marriage in the United States Defense of Marriage Act Marriage Protection Act Federal Marriage Amendment Domestic partnerships in the United States Freedom to Marry Coalition History of civil marriage in the U.S. Lon Mabon Karen Minnis
Almindingen and Oregon Ballot Measure 36 (2004)Almindingen StationAlmindingen ("the common") is one of the largest forests in Denmark. It is located in the centre of the island of Bornholm. The forest covers 3,800 hectares (9,400 acres), making it Denmark's third largest. Though it was at one time common grazing land for cattle, it was fenced in for forestry in 1809 by Hans Rømer, the forest supervisor. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century, Bornholm had become Denmark's most forested region.Bornholm's highest point is Rytterknægten at 162 metres (531 ft), where there is a memorial to Frederick VII of Denmark and Countess Danner's visit to the island in 1851. In 2012, the Nature Agency brought seven European bison from a Polish primeval forest to a 200 acres (81 ha) paddock in Almindingen, marking the first time in 2,500 years that Europe's heaviest land-living mammals were in Denmark. There are a number of walking paths through Almindingen such as the ones leading to Ekkodal and Gamleborg.Contents 1 Geography 2 Conservation 3 Fauna and flora 4 Places of interest 5 ReferencesGeographyAlmindingen's habitat has been described as a "green oasis" or a "Disneyland for nature lovers". The geographical features include many small valleys and a large rift valley Ekkodalen ("echo valley"), with steep rocky cliffs, two large marshy areas, several bogs and fens, with stretches of open heath to the east. There are patches of the original mixed woods and oak woods. The many watch towers facilitate bird watching at close quarters. There are observation towers at Udkæret, Bastemose, Svinemose, Ølene, and Rømersvej. Many public roads, forest tracks, and paths are available, as well as some rudimentary camp sites. ConservationThough the forest is subject to commercial use, it has some areas which remain 'untouched' as woodland and grazing pastures. Older methods of management are sometimes employed where they can enhance the habitat for flora and fauna. In this conservation effort, the EU Birds Directive and the EU Habitat Directive have brought Almindingen under protection guidelines. Ølene has been declared a nature reserve and totally prohibited for visitors. Conservation orders are also in force for Ekkodalen, and the two bogs of Vallensgård and Kærgård. The Important Bird Area organization, BirdLife International, has listed both Almindingen and Rø Plantage. Conservation effort also covers recreational use, preservation of cultural relics and natural scenic locations. Fauna and flora Red KiteThe fauna reported by the European Environment Agency in the area in Almindingen, Paradisbakkerne and Ølene are: Invertebrates – Dytiscus latissimus and Graphoderus bilineatus Birds – Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus), Eurasian Bittern (Botaurus stellaris), European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus), Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Hen Harrier ("Circus cyaneus), Corn Crake ("Crex crex), Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), Common Crane (Grus grus), White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor), Red Kite (Milvus milvus), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and European Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus). In all 210 bird species have been reported from the area. Mammals – Bechstein's Bat (Myotis bechsteinii) and Pond Bat (Myotis dasycneme). Places of interestBornholm has both varied natural features, such as Almindingen, Hammeren, Jons Kapel, Paradisbakkerne, and Dueodde, as well as Denmark's tallest lighthouse. Places of interest in Almindingen include the ruins of Lilleborg Castle, the Kristianshøj Inn, well built forest ranger residences, the arboretum, Bolsterbjerg, Gamleborg, and to the east, the hills of Paradisbakkerne. Towers for bird-watching are erected to view birds of prey, ducks, geese and sometimes large cranes. The Nexø-Dueodde tourist information office provides information to tourists.There are four designated walks: Walk 1 is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long. Walk 2 is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long. Along the Ekkodalen echo valley, the echo can be best heard by walking along the marked path to the left and facing H.C. Ørsted’s spring. At Rytterknægten, the monument erected in 1856 is seen. The viewing tower here made in 1899 from where panoramic views of the forests can be enjoyed is 184 metres (604 ft) tall. Walk 3 is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long. There is a diversity of trees, shrubs, grasslands and some small lakes. The Arboretet, landscaped in 1932 by the forest ranger A.F. Valdemar Seier (from 1916-1946), covers an area of 4-5 ha. Walk 4 is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long. There are several lakes such as the Græssøen, Dyresøen, Borgesøen, and Gamleborg Lake. Other notable landmarks are a Viking era castle ruin and Lilleborg Castle.
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