Kishanganj district and Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet, of Richmond Hill

This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Kishanganj.

Kishanganj district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Kishanganj town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Kishanganj district is a part of Purnia division.

Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography 4 Economy 5 Sub-divisions 6 Education 7 Demographics 8 References 9 External links

Etymology

During the period of Khagada Nawab, Mohammed Fakiruddin, one Hindu saint arrived , he was tired and wanted to rest at this place, but when he heard that this place name is Alamganj ,the river name is Ramzan and the Jamindar name is Fakiruddin , he refused to enter at Alamganj. After that the Nawab decided and announced some portion from Kishanganj Gudri to Ramzan pool gandhi ghat as Krishna-Kunj . As time passed by the name gets converted to present KISHANGANJ History

Kishanganj was the old and important Sub-Division of Purnia district. After the long and hard struggle of Seventeen Years from people of Kishanganj including Social Workers, politicians, journalist, businessman’s, Farmers etc., the Kishanganj District came into existence on 14 January 1990.

During the Mughal period, the area was part of Nepal and was called Nepalgarh. When on the instructions of the Mughal emperor, Mohammed Reza captured the fort at Nepalgarh, the name was changed to Alamganj. It later became Kishanganj. Geography

Kishanganj district occupies an area of 1,884 square kilometres (727 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Maui in the United States. Kishanganj district is surrounded by Araria district in the west, Purnia district in the south-west, Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal on the east, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nepal on the north. A narrow strip of West Bengal, about 20 km wide separates it from Bangladesh.

Kishanganj district is located between 250 20’ and 260 30’ north latitudes, and 870 7’ and 880 19’ east longitudes.

Major rivers flowing through the district are Mahananda, Kankai, Mechi, Donk, Ratua and Ramzan Sudhani. Economy

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Kishanganj one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). Sub-divisions

The district comprises only one sub-division, Kishanganj, which is further divided into seven blocks: Bhahadurganj, Dighalbank, Kishanganj, Kochadhaman, Pothia, Terhagachha, Thakurgunj Education

On 30 January 2014, Sonia Gandhi laid the foundation stone of the Kishanganj campus of Aligarh Muslim University. Demographics

According to the 2011 census Kishanganj district has a population of 1,690,948, roughly equal to the nation of Guinea-Bissau or the US state of Idaho. This gives it a ranking of 293rd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 898 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,330 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 30.44%. Kishanganj has a sex ratio of 946 females for every 1,000 males, and a literacy rate of 57.04%.

A vast majority of the people live in the villages. A predominantly Muslim area, with Muslims forming about 70 per cent of the population, there are also Hindus of whom are Surajpuris. There also are small Santal pockets. The inhabitants of Kishanganj mostly speak Surajpuri, one of the Rajbongshi languages which has much similarities with Bengali. Kishanganj district had a literacy rate of 31.02 per cent in 2001, the lowest amongst all the districts of Bihar. The literacy rate of Bihar at 47.53 per cent is amongst the lowest in India, which has a literacy rate of 64.84 per cent. While the male literacy rate in Kishanganj district stood at 42.8 per cent, female literacy at 18.49 per cent was the lowest in India.

See also - Literacy In Bihar

Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet, of Richmond Hill and Kishanganj district

Sir William Brown 1846

Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet (30 May 1784 – 3 March 1864) was a British merchant and banker, founder of the banking-house of Brown, Shipley & Co. and a Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1846 to 1859.

Contents 1 Life 2 Philanthropy 3 Family 4 References 5 External links

Life

He was the eldest son of Alexander Brown of Ballymena, county Antrim, and Grace, daughter of John Davison (1764–1834) of Drumnasole, was born at Ballymena, Ireland on 30 May 1784. At twelve years of age he was placed under the care of the Rev. J. Bradley at Oatterick, Yorkshire, whence in 1800 he returned to Ireland.

Soon afterwards he sailed with his father and mother for the United States of America, and at Baltimore, Maryland, where his father continued the linen trade in which he had been engaged in Ireland, received in the counting-house his commercial education. He was sent with his brothers, George (1787–1859), John (1788–1852), and James (1791–1877), to be educated at the school of the Revd J. Bradley in Catterick, North Yorkshire. In a few years the house at Baltimore became the firm of Alexander Brown & Sons, consisting of the father and his sons, William, John, George, and James.

In 1809, William returned to the United Kingdom, established a branch of the firm in Liverpool, and they shortly afterwards abandoned the exclusive linen business and became general merchants. The transactions of the firm soon extended so as to require further branches. James established himself at New York City and John at Philadelphia, and on the death of their father the business, then the most extensive in the American trade, was continued by the four brothers, George remaining in Baltimore. The disastrous aspect of affairs in financial crisis of 1837, induced the brothers George and John, who had by this time realised ample fortunes, to retire from the firm, leaving William the eldest and James the youngest to continue the concern. Brown persuaded the Bank of England to advance him £2,000,000 to tide matters over in view of the firm's multiple interests. Brown only needed half the amount, which he repaid within six months. His business, both mercantile and banking, continued to increase, and in 1844 he was held one sixth of the trade between Great Britain and the United States. "There is hardly," declared Richard Cobden at this period, "a wind that blows, or a tide that flows in the Mersey, that does not bring a ship freighted with cotton or some other costly commodity for Mr Brown's house." They now became bankers in the sense of conducting transmissions of money on public account between the two hemispheres, and in this pursuit and the business of merchants they acquired immense wealth.

In 1825, William took an active part in the agitation for the reform in the management of the Liverpool docks. He was elected an alderman of Liverpool in 1831, and held that office until 1838. He was the unsuccessful Anti-Cornlaw League candidate for South Lancashire in 1844. In 1846, Brown was elected Liberal M.P. for South Lancashire, and held the seat until 23 April 1869.

He was the founder of the firm of Brown, Shipley, & Co., Liverpool and London merchants, and at one time was the chairman of the Atlantic Telegraph Company.

In 1856, friction arose between the British and American governments because British consuls were enlisting recruits for the Crimean War, but this was largely allayed by Brown, who in an interview with Lord Palmerston, then prime-minister, explained the objections taken in America. Philanthropy

His name is probably best known by the munificent gift which he bestowed on his adopted town. He erected the Free Public Library and Derby Museum at Liverpool, which was opened on 8 Oct. 1860, at a cost to himself of £40,000, the corporation providing the site and foundation and furnishing the building. At the inauguration of the volunteer movement in 1859, he raised and equipped at his own expense a corps of artillery, which ranked as the 1st brigade of Lancashire artillery volunteers. In 1863, he was selected as High Sheriff of Lancashire. He was created a baronet on 24 January 1863, and in the same year he served as sheriff for the county of Lancashire.

He did not, however, live long to enjoy his honours, as he died at Richmond Hill, Liverpool, on 3 March 1864. He was always an advocate of free trade, and particularly favoured the idea of a decimal currency. Oh the proving of his will on 21 May 1864 the personalty was sworn under £900,000. Family

He married, on 1 January 1810, Sarah, daughter of Andrew Gibson of Ballymena; she died on 5 March 1858. The eldest son, Alexander Brown, having died on 8 October 1849, the grandson, Lieutenant-colonel William Richmond Brown, succeeded to the baronetcy in 1864.

Sir W. Brown was the author of a pamphlet entitled 'Decimal Coinage. A Letter from W. Brown, Esq., M.P., to Francis Shand, Esq., Chairman of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce,' 1854.
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