12 Corazones and Śukasaptati

12 Corazones (Spanish pronunciation: , 12 Hearts) is a Spanish-language dating game show produced in the United States for the television network Telemundo since January 2005, based on its namesake Argentine TV show format The show is filmed in Los Angeles and revolves around the twelve Zodiac signs that identify each contestant. The show is hosted by Penelope Menchaca and features advice from co-host Maximiliano Palacio, an Argentine former polo player turned actor, and Edward'O, an astrologist; Palacio and Edward'O often appear alternately in some episodes and simultaneously in others.

In August 2009, Telemundo added English subtitles as closed captions on CC3, airing on mun2 in that format.

Contents 1 Show format 2 Nature of the show 2.1 First segment 2.2 Second segment 2.3 Final segment 3 Winner 4 See also 5 External links 6 References

Show format

The show consists of 12 contestants divided into two groups (usually four males and eight females, but sometimes vice versa). Each of the contestants is identified and referred to by his/her Zodiac sign. In between segments, Maximiliano Palacio offers love and relationship advice to the contestants. Nature of the show

As the show is aimed at women, the host is most exaggeratedly on the female contestants' side. She often mocks the men, baits them to make them look dumb, and praises the ladies when they ridicule them. The true object of this, however, is to find the most suitable man and make him appear, for if any of the male contestants are mature, they will prove so by not resorting to petty insults. They will good-naturedly take all the ridicule and try to win a 'heart' with charm instead. Most episodes commonly feature a themed format, often involving the contestants (and often, host Penelope Menchaca, as well) in costume; themes used on 12 Corazones include beach-themed episodes in which contestants appear in beachwear, and a beauty pageant-style themed episodes, among others. First segment

After their introduction, the males interact in a mock play, or they are asked to perform a stunt, usually for their ridicule (sing a song, recite a goofy poem, etc.) Then, the host begins a roundtable of discussion on a certain subject. After this is finished, the first group is taken out of the room and the second group decide to eliminate one of their contestants. When the contestants are introduced, the introduction includes their Zodiac sign, nationality or place of birth and their occupation. For example, this woman is a Taurus, Nicaraguan, and is currently in college studying communications. Second segment

On the second segment, a chosen male or female from the main group is eliminated. Soon afterward, the male or female suitors are introduced (identified by their astrological sign, hometown and occupation; though this portion sometimes is not included), the host then chooses a contestant of each group to interact in a closer way, for example dancing, kissing, etc. To decide what kind of interaction will take place, the host uses some sort of game like a "roulette of kisses", or two special dice. This is followed by a second roundtable of discussion. Then, each of the male contestants eliminates a female contestant of the other group. This leaves only three contestants in the main group and five contestants on the group of suitors. Final segment

For the final segment, the host picks a contestant of the second group who is supposed to pick their heart among the male or female contestants. The contestant chosen has the option to accept or reject. The rules of the show allow the contestant of the second group to pick their heart among the contestants from the first group who have already chosen another person from the second group (an example occurred in an episode originally broadcast on January 20, 2011, in which the same male contestant was chosen by each of the five remaining female suitors; the male contestant chose each of the females, effectively rejecting the previously chosen females in the process, also as per the rules of the show).

Instances in which a person from the first group chooses the person from the second over the person they have already chosen do occur from time to time, but less commonly in episodes in which the first group consists of four females at the start of the show. Winner

When the couples are chosen (usually 1-3 couples) the audience votes for their favorite. The host Penelope Menchaca then calls the winner by the color chair they are sitting in. The winners get a free paid date courtesy of the show. When the winner is chosen they get to kiss again in front of the stage which concludes the program. See also Dating game show 12 Corazones: Rumbo al Altar External links Telemundo Website Official "12 Corazones" Website

Śukasaptati and 12 Corazones

Śukasaptati, or Seventy tales of the parrot is a collection of stories originally written in Sanskrit. The stories are supposed to be narrated to a woman by her pet parrot, at the rate of one story every night, in order to dissuade her from going out to meet her paramour when her husband is away.

The stories frequently deal with illicit liaisons, the problems that flow from them and the way to escape those crises by using one's wits. Though the actual purpose of the parrot is to prevent its mistress from leaving, it does so without moralising. At the end of the seventy days, the woman's husband returns from his trip abroad and all is forgiven. Most of the stories are ribald and uninhibited, with some verging on the portographic. The situations depicted in the stories not only test the bounds of marriage, some stray into taboo areas of incest and, in one case, zoophilia.

The collection is part of the Katha tradition of Sanskrit literature. Some of the tales are actually repeated from earlier well-known collections in Sanskrit literature. In the tradition of Sanskrit literature, the tales are frequently interspersed with verse, many original, some repeated from earlier works. Though it is not known when it was originally written, current scholarship accepts that the collection was in its current form by the 12th century CE, though currently the oldest known manuscript dates back to the 15th century CE. The collection has been translated to many languages, including Persian in the 14th century, and in Malay, Hikayat Bayan Budiman, by a certain Kadi Hassan in 773 AH (1371 AD). It was last translated to English in 2000 CE.

Contents 1 Structure 2 Stories 3 Verses 4 History 5 See also 6 References

Structure

The collection, following the story within a story format to maintain continuity, actually contains 72 stories, of which one story acts as the main narrative. The remaining 71 stories are narrated by the parrot.

The main story is that of Madana Vinoda, the wayward son of a merchant, and his wife Padmavati. The merchant's Brahmin friend tries to bring Madana to the path of righteousness by giving him a pet talking parrot. This attempt is successful as the parrot narrates a story that brings Madana to the path of duty. Having learnt his lesson, he sets off on a voyage, presumably on a business venture, leaving his wife alone.

Padmavati, though initially dejected by her husband's departure, soon falls into the company of wanton women who suggest that she take on a lover. She agrees, and every night for the next seventy nights, she gets ready to meet him. But she is thwarted in her attempt every single night by the parrot, which adopts the stratagem of telling her a story. The parrot typically expresses approval of its mistress' intention by agreeing that the goal of life was to seek pleasure and acknowledges the strength of sexual desire. Then it excites her interest by asking whether she had the wits to escape if any troublesome situation were to arise, as the protagonist of her next story had. Padmavati naturally wants to know the details of the story and the parrot proceeds to narrate it. At the end of the story, Padmavati decides not to go for her rendezvous that night.

On the seventieth night, Madana returns and Padmavati has learnt the errors of her ways. Prompted by the parrot, she makes a full confession to her husband, thanking the parrot for keeping her from physical infidelity. The parrot's seventieth story is in fact a plea for forgiveness on the grounds that Padmavati was not fully responsible for her fault, having been led astray by bad company. Stories

The typical story involves a wife being surprised by her husband while she is in the act of committing adultery. She has to use her wits to get out of her predicament, which she always does. In one story, she has to pass between the legs of a Yaksha, a feat impossible to achieve unless one has told the truth. The wife manages it by having her lover dress up as a lunatic and grab her — as a result, she is able to truthfully swear that no one except her husband and the lunatic has ever touched her in her life.

Frequently the stories test the limits of taboo. In one case, the wife introduces her lover as a cousin to enable his entry into the house. When the lover refuses to have sex with her on the ground that he is now her brother, she threatens to accuse him of rape and gains his acquiescence. In another story, the wife has both father and son as lovers, and she has to deal with the problem of what to do when her husband stumbles upon the scene.

The stories are often blunt, verging on portography. In one case, the cuckolded husband has managed to grab his rival's penis while the lover was having sex with the wife literally behind the husband's back. The wife then has the unenviable task of devising a way to extricate her lover. The cuckolds are generally unaware of the situation though some times they are portrayed as simpleminded, and the wives often take advantage of their ignorance and superstitious nature. However, in one case, the husband, a king, is impressed by the lover's wit and lets his wife go with him, reasoning that while poets like the lover are rare, women like his wife are not.

The less typical story involves men being in similar situations, though in this case the trouble still comes in the form of the woman's husband rather than the man's wife. Other common stories revolve around men using the threat of embarrassment to regain gifts they showered on their lovers, often harlots. Dalliances involving unmarried women having illicit sex are very rare — with the obvious exception of prostitutes.

One story manages to simultaneously stray into zoophilia and poke fun at a divinity. It involves a woman who has promised to kiss the idol of Ganapati if she achieves a particular (wholly legitimate) goal. The mischievous idol grabs her lips and wouldn't let go. The husband has to make the idol laugh by simulating sex with a donkey to rescue his wife.

The stories form an "absorbing social document" of those times. It portrays a society where women's sexuality is openly accepted and prostitutes are accepted as a semi-legitimate part of society. In one story, a father engages a procuress to teach his son the art of safeguarding his wealth from the guiles of courtesans.

Not all stories involve sexual escapades. Some deal with other tricky situations that one can encounter in life and of them some have been lifted straight from the Panchatantra. Verses

As with many Sanskrit texts, there are verses interspersed with prose that form part of the narrative.

Some are erotic:

And some describe profound wisdom:

In some cases the verses are part of the story and actually act as part of the conversation between the characters. In others, they are merely regurgitations of earlier works such as the Hitopadesha, the Panchatantra, and even the Puranas. History

Though the collection's oldest known manuscript dates back only to the 15th century, there are references to it in other works much earlier. Current scholarship dates the book in its current form to the 12th century, though the individual stories in it are much older and are often found in the Jataka tales and in the Kathasaritsagara.

There are two versions of the work available in Sanskrit, the simplicior version attributed to a Brahmin Chintamani has been described as having a "simple, somewhat abrupt style" while the ornatior version, attributed to a Jain monk Shvetambara is "elaborate and ornate". The simplicior version is considered to be older. The names simplicior and ornatior were assigned by German scholar Richard Schmidt.

There have been many translations of the work into both Indian and non-Indian languages. In the 14th century, Persian scholar Nakhshabi translated it as Tutinama. This in turn was translated into Turkish and formed the basis for the German translation, which was the first one into a Western language.

In 2000, HarperCollins India published a translation from the original Sanskrit done by Indian diplomat-scholar A N D Haksar. The book claims that this was the first rendition into English that made use of the original Sanskrit, as against the Persian translation. A Malayalam translation is available for the work, named as Thatha Paranja Kathakal. See also Tutinama
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