de Havilland Gipsy Six and Brimfield, Ohio

The de Havilland Gipsy Six is a British six-cylinder, air-cooled, inverted inline piston engine developed for aircraft use in the 1930s. It was based on the cylinders of the four-cylinder Gipsy Major and went on to spawn a whole series of similar aero engines that were still in common use until the 1980s.

The engines were of particular note for their exceptionally low cross-sectional area, a drag-reducing feature which made them ideal for the many racing aircraft of that period. In 1934, the basic bronze-headed Gipsy Six, rated at 185 horsepower (138 kW) at 2,100 rpm was modified for use in the DH.88 Comet air racer as the Gipsy Six "R" which produced 223 horsepower (166 kW) at 2,400 rpm for takeoff. Many Gipsy Six engines remain in service powering vintage aircraft types today.

Contents 1 Design and development 1.1 Type history 2 Variants 3 Applications 4 Survivors 5 Engines on display 6 Specifications (Gipsy Six I) 6.1 General characteristics 6.2 Components 6.3 Performance 7 See also 8 References 8.1 Notes 8.2 Bibliography 9 External links

Design and development

The de Havilland company had hoped to produce a version of the basic engine capable of utilising a hydraulically actuated variable pitch (VP) airscrew based on the American Hamilton "Bracket-Type" in time for the 1934 MacRoberts Race. Since there was so little time to perfect this installation, as a compromise, a French "Ratier" VP airscrew was fitted to the Comets' "R" engines, which utilised a simple air-filled bladder for a once-per-flight automatic pitch change. Later on, Comets were fitted with the Series II engine, which eliminated this crude system. Power for the "R" was increased to a takeoff rating of 223 hp by increasing the compression ratios from 5.25:1 to 6.5:1, while fitting aluminium alloy cylinder heads, domed-pistons and modified valve gear. Production of the basic fixed-pitch Gipsy Six unit began in 1935, with the engines rated at 200 hp (150 kW) at 2,400 rpm for takeoff.

This was quickly followed by production of the 205 hp Gipsy Six Series II for use with the hydraulically actuated airscrews that de Havilland were by then producing under a licence acquired from Hamilton Standard in 1934. This was effectively the engine that the company did not have time to develop for the 1934 MacRobertson race, but without the significant increase in compression-ratio needed for the Comet. The Series II unit, while superficially similar to its predecessor, utilised a hollow, splined crankshaft to permit the fitting of the VP airscrew utilising boosted pressurised oil from the engine's dry-sump lubrication system via a pilot-operated control valve. As well as differences to the crankcase and crankshaft, different cylinder barrels, pistons and aluminium cylinder heads were utilised. There was also an added, very limited ability provided on the Series II to run accessories. The "pilot-friendly" constant speed units (CSUs) were not available for these engines until 1939. The Series II was also equipped with AMC (Automatic Mixture Control) a barometric device, without which it was exceedingly difficult to adjust for a correct mixture with a CSU fitted. This feature was also carried over onto the similar Queen II. Pilots were then able to simply select the required RPM and Boost pressure required. This reduction in over-leaning also tended to extend the TBO (time between overhauls). The twin down-draught, Claudel-Hobson A.I.48 carburetters were common to all these engines. It is interesting to note that in the mid-1930s, the induction system was skilfully designed to automatically obviate the effects of carburetter icing - a dangerous problem that still plagues most piston engines in current worldwide use in 2008, more than 70 years later.

Alfa Romeo built two engine types based on the Gipsy Six design, the Alfa Romeo 110 and Alfa Romeo 115. Type history

The series of engines proved to be reliable, and the time between overhaul (TBO) was more than doubled within a few years. The Achilles' heel of the earlier units, namely the lack of facilities for running ancillary items, an increasing requirement during the 1930s, was addressed later on the Queen engines.

These engines powered many, if not most of the racing and record-setting aircraft of the 1930s. The engines were subsequently developed into the similar de Havilland Gipsy Queen III and Queen II for military applications. Later developments, such as the postwar Queen 30 and Queen 70 series engines took the rated power from 185 hp up to nearly 500 hp, and, while being entirely new designs, still used all of the same basic configuration of the original Gipsy Six of the mid-1930s and were in use by operators such as the Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Navy (RN) until the 1980s.

Today, with de Havilland having long disappeared, very few of these engines remain in use and only a few specialist facilities can carry out overhauls. Variants Gipsy Six I Bronze cylinder heads, 200hp. For fixed-pitch airscrews. Gipsy Six Series II Aluminium cylinder heads, designed for leaded fuel. 210 hp. For VP airscrews. Gipsy Six 'R' Racing engine with high lift camshaft. 220 hp. For VP airscrews. Gipsy Queen Military version of Gipsy Six. Queen I;- 200hp. Small number produced. Similar to Queen II, but not provided with facility for a VP airscrew. Queen III;- 205 hp, for fixed-pitch airscrews. Queen II;- The military version of the Gipsy Six Series II was the Queen II for VP airscrews, 210hp. Both the Queen II and the Queen III had strengthened crankcases. Later versions of the Queen III & Queen II had extra facilities for driving accessories. Later Queens from the Queen 30 onwards differed substantially, and whilst looking sililar were in fact entirely new engines. IAR 6G1 - licence-built by Industria Aeronautică Română Alfa Romeo 115 Alfa Romeo licence production/derivative Applications de Havilland Gipsy Six powered Percival Mew Gull ASJA Viking II Caproni Ca.308 Borea Cierva W.9 de Havilland Dragon Six de Havilland Dragon Rapide de Havilland Express de Havilland DH.88 Koolhoven F.K.57 Miles Mentor Parnall Heck Percival Mew Gull Percival Petrel Percival Vega Gull Rogožarski SIM-XII-H Tugan Gannet Survivors

Gipsy Six engines remain in service worldwide as of April 2010, Twelve Gipsy Six powered de Havilland Dragon Rapide aircraft are noted on the Civil Aviation Authority register although not all are currently airworthy. Engines on display

A preserved Gipsy Six engine is on public display at the Shuttleworth Collection, Old Warden, Bedfordshire, another is on display at the Science Museum, London. Specifications (Gipsy Six I) Preserved at the Shuttleworth Collection One of the original Gipsy Six R racing engines that was fitted to the winning DH.88 Comet Grosvenor House (background) of the MacRobertson Air Race in 1934, the engines were removed from the aircraft following the race and replaced with the more reliable standard Gipsy Six engines.

Data from Jane's General characteristics Type: 6-cylinder air-cooled inverted inline piston aircraft engine Bore: 4.646 in (118 mm) Stroke: 5.512 in (140 mm) Displacement: 560.6 in3 (9.186 L) Length: 62.1 in (1,578 mm) Width: 19 in (485 mm) Height: 32.4 in (823 mm) Dry weight: 468 lb (213 kg) Components Valvetrain: OHV Fuel system: Two downdraught Claudel-Hobson A.I.48F carburettors Oil system: Dry sump, gear-type pump Cooling system: Air-cooled Performance Power output: 200 hp (149 kW) at 2,350 rpm (on 70 octane fuel) Specific power: 0.357 hp/cu in (16.2 kW/L) Compression ratio: 5.25:1 Fuel consumption: 10 gph (45.4 L/ph) at 2,100 rpm Oil consumption: Up to 4 pints (2.4 L) per hour. Power-to-weight ratio: 0.42 hp/lb (0.7 kW/kg) See also Related development de Havilland Gipsy Queen Comparable engines Menasco Buccaneer Napier Javelin Ranger L-440 Related lists List of aircraft engines

Brimfield, Ohio and de Havilland Gipsy Six

Brimfield is a census-designated place (CDP) in Portage County, Ohio, United States. As of the 2000 census, the CDP had a population of 3,248. It is located in the central part of Brimfield Township (of which it is a part), a rural area between the Ohio cities of Akron and Kent with light industry, strip-malls, subdivisions, and farms. Among Brimfield's most notable natives was Newton H. Hall, a recipient of the Medal of Honor for gallantry during the American Civil War.

Brimfield is part of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 References

History

Brimfield was originally known as Thorndike until 1830. Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.0 square miles (10.4 km²), of which, 4.0 square miles (10.3 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.75%) is water. Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,248 people, 1,139 households, and 912 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 817.1 people per square mile (315.9/km²). There were 1,158 housing units at an average density of 291.3/sq mi (112.6/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.40% White, 1.75% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, and 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.62% of the population.

There were 1,139 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.9% were non-families. 14.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $40,476, and the median income for a family was $43,558. Males had a median income of $36,830 versus $22,262 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $19,844. About 7.3% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.0% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.

As of the 2010 census, population had increased 2.9% to 3,343 people.
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